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# Alternative Design Matrices for ANOVA

In most text book discussions of design matrices for ANOVA, they commonly dwell solely on what is called the over parameterized model and methods for overcoming its limitations instead of the model given in Examples 3.13.2.3 and 3.13.5.4. This is due primarily to the historical origins of ANOVA and reverence to the simplifications that assisted solving the computations by hand. Since we have absolutely no interest in working these problems out by hand, we have adopted a more modern, and in our opinion, more explicit design matrix for ANOVA. However, since it is impossible to avoid these antiquated alternative design matrices and their methods of use, we will describe them here.

Given the data in mice treatment data in Table 3.13.2, the over parameterized model is, where estimates a mean value for all of the data (regardless of the particular treatment for each sample) and the remaining four parameters estimate the means of the residuals for each treatment. This model represents the fact that ANOVA was developed prior to the convenient access to computers that we have today and it allowed for the calculations to be done by hand without having to use matrix algebra explicitly. These methods, however, lack generality and obscure the question that you want ANOVA to answer. For example, with the mice data, we ask the question Are all the treatments the same?'' With our modern model, we can easily convert this question into one we can test by asking, Are the means for each treatment the same?'' Using the over parameterized model we end up asking the mildly cryptic question, Is the variation in the sample due to variation within treatments or variation between treatments?'' Both questions eventually will yield the same answer: You decide which one will be easier to explain to someone not already steeped in statistical terminology.

If we are going to use our general hypothesis test (Equation 3.13.21) to answer our question with the over parameterized model, we must first create the design matrix. Thus, without displaying the redundant rows, we have: The problem with this design matrix, however, is that it can not be used with our hypothesis testing formula due to the fact that is singular. To work around this problem, statisticians have come up with three solutions. The first is to remove the last column in X and modify the parameter vector, to make up for this change, the second is to modify X using what is called -restricted notation, and the third is to create a generalized inverse of X. Here we will focus on the first two methods since they are encountered most often (see Steel, Torrie and Dickey, for examples using the over parameterized model).

Using the first method we have to make the following changes to the design matrix and the parameter vector: Now, if we multiply X and together, we get: Notice that is just the mean of the first treatment, is the mean of the second treatment, and so on. Thus, after a lot of work modifying X and , we are exactly where our modern model began.

Using -restricted notation, you allow the independent variables to take on three different values, 1, 0 and -1, instead of the binary 1 and 0 used in the other methods. By doing so, we can indicate membership in the last treatment by using -1 for the other treatments. This is because we are assuming that the estimates are unbiased making the sum of the deviations zero. Thus, any particular deviation can be derived from the others as the negetaive of the sum of the remaining deviations. Our design matrix becomes: The results here are similar to the over parameterized model.

It is clear that using a classic ANOVA approach both obscures the question you are interested in answering and requires more effort on behalf of the individual willing to abide by it. These problems also carry over to ANCOVA whereas our modern model generalizes without any additional effort (see Example 3.13.5.11). Furthermore, since there it is unessicary to reparameterize the design matrices involved in ANOVA and ANCOVA, we can establish the guidline that any design matrix that requires reparameterization should be a signal that you may be making unrealistic assumptions about the nature of the data (see Examples 3.13.5.5, 3.13.5.9 and 3.13.5.10). Thus, the authors are inclined to recommend using our modern approach to ANOVA.    Next: 2x2 Factorial Interaction Plots Up: The Joy of Learning. Previous: .   Index

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Frank Starmer 2004-05-19
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